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Operating System Processes

operating system processes

What is operating system processes ?

  • A process in operating system made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions simultaneously.

  • Means a process is a program in execution, the execution of a process must progress in sequential order or it works based on some priority.

  • Processes are used to group resources together.

  • The processes share CPU and only one process running at a time.

  • The processes are independent of one another.

  • If one process is blocked then, another process does not affected.

  • Processes run in separate memory spaces.

The process in memory is divided into 4 parts:-

Text section:-

It is made up of the compiled program code also represent the current activity.

Data section:-

It is used to declare global and static variables before the execution of main.

Heap section:-

It is used for dynamic memory allocation to process at run time.

Stack section:-

Is used for local variables.Memory for local variable is reserved in the stack when they are declared.It is a temporary storage for data.

State of process in Operating System


This is the first state where a process is created.


When processes are waiting for the resource allocation by the operating system so that they can run.


When the process assigned to a processor by the OS scheduler, and the processor executes its instructions.


Here the process is wait for the resource.


Once the process complete its execution, then it is terminated by the operating system and removed from main memory.